Green pass per viaggiare in UE: la guida di Regione Lombardia
With the launch of the national platform set up and managed by Sogei, as of Thursday 17 June, citizens will be able to start receiving notifications by email or text message advising them that the certificate is available and a code to download it onto their PC, tablet or smartphone. Messages will continue to be sent and activations unlocked throughout June, and will be fully operational from 28 June, in time for the planned launch of the European pass on 1 July.
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Following improvements in the vaccination campaign and the consequential reduction of cases, the government issued a decree on April 22, setting the stages for the reopening of the country and establishing the grounds for the COVID-19 certificate (so-called green pass) based on vaccination, testing, or recovery from infection (Italian Council of Ministers 2021l). Further relaxation of the measures came with a new decree on May 18 (Italian Council of Ministers 2021m). An additional decree on July 23 (Italian Council of Ministers 2021a) revised the mechanism determining the tiers and introduced some restrictions for individuals without the green pass (e.g., limitations on indoor dining, public events, and services). Since September 1, the green pass has been mandatory for school staff, university employees, and university students, as well as for public transportation under some circumstances (Italian Council of Ministers 2021b).Footnote 8
A new epidemic wave beginning in July 2021 (Italian National Institute of Health 2021b) and linked to the spread of the Delta variant lasted until the fall. Over time, vaccination and testing status became the most relevant variables in determining the level of restrictions, with increased easing for vaccinated and tightening for unvaccinated individuals. On October 8, the government relaxed the constraints on the attendance of public events in white zone (Italian Council of Ministers 2021e). Since October 15, the government has mandated the green pass to access workplaces (Italian Council of Ministers 2021d). On November 26, the government extended the target of mandatory vaccination and introduced the super green pass (issued to recovered and vaccinated individuals; Italian Council of Ministers 2021g). As a consequence of the provisions adopted during this period, the distinctions among the white, yellow, and orange zones for vaccinated and recovered individuals became subtler.
At the end of 2021, the rapid takeover of the Omicron variant (Italian National Institute of Health 2022) spurred a rapid rise in cases and deaths and increased pressure on hospitals (Fig. 4). In response to the substantial increase of cases, the government adopted additional provisions (Italian Council of Ministers 2021h, i, 2022); in particular, accessing bars and restaurants required the super green pass. Moreover, the government temporarily forbade some public events, shut down clubs and discos, and extended the scope of the green pass and super green pass (e.g., access to public and private places). However, thanks to vaccination and the lower severity of the Omicron variant with respect to Delta, we observe a substantial decoupling between cases and deaths. Finally, the government announced the end of the state of emergency on March 31, 2022.Footnote 9
All indicators save C8_InternationalTravel and H1_PublicCampaigns may target specific territories. Hence, within the context of the regulatory framework established with the November 3, 2020, decree in particular (Italian President of the Council of Ministers 2020i), it is crucial to account for the size of the population facing a given level of restrictions. Besides geographical differentiation, since August 2021, the Italian government has introduced a special regime for individuals holding the green pass granted to vaccinated people or those who have tested negative for SARS-CoV-2 in the previous two days. In the construction of the indicators, we consider that a more stringent regulation applies to unvaccinated people.
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